HISTORY -OBJ-Examfada.com




(i)Public Ignorance: Some Nigerian communities have the perception that archaeology’s primary concerns are against principles guiding their
religion or culture and tradition. As a result, such societies are willing to do anything humanly possible to frustrate the archaeologists and teams of archaeology departments in Nigerian universities carrying out research in such communities.

(ii)Environmental Challenges: The location of Nigeria in the tropics has placed the country at a disadvantaged position when it comes to the preservation of archaeological materials buried in the ground. Like other countries in the tropics, the climate is humid, the soil is usually acidic and erosion is also common.

(iii)Corruption: Corruption which is a common problem in Nigeria
(Adagbabiri, 2018), is also found in the CH sector. Here, the first
individuals to watch out for when corruption is mentioned are the political office holders appointed to oversee the affairs of CH institutions.

(iv)Instability/Insecurity: Another challenge that has posed a serious obstacle to the wellbeing of CH resources and archaeological research in Nigeria in recent times is instability and/or insecurity. This situation has become a common vice in all the locations of the country.


(i) Autonomous Regional Governance: Non-centralized states in Nigeria often have autonomous regional governance structures. These regions have a level of self-governance and decision-making power, allowing them to manage their affairs to some extent.

(ii) Greater Resource Control: Non-centralized states have greater control over the resources within their boundaries. This includes natural resources such as oil, minerals, and agricultural products. They can negotiate and manage the exploitation of these resources and retain a larger share of the revenue generated.

(iii) Revenue Allocation: Non-centralized states have the authority to allocate and manage their own revenue. They can collect taxes, fees, and levies, and have the power to determine how these funds are spent within their jurisdiction.

(iv) Local Legislation: Non-centralized states can enact and enforce laws specific to their region. They have legislative bodies, such as state assemblies, which can pass laws and regulations that are applicable within their boundaries, as long as they do not conflict with federal laws.

(v) Independent Judiciary: Non-centralized states have their own judicial systems, with independent courts that can adjudicate legal matters within their jurisdiction. They can interpret and apply both state and federal laws within the scope of their authority.

(vi) Education Policies: Non-centralized states have the power to shape and implement their own education policies. They can establish educational institutions, develop curriculum guidelines, and make decisions regarding educational standards and practices.

(vii) Health Service Provision: Non-centralized states are responsible for the provision of healthcare services within their jurisdictions. They can establish and manage healthcare facilities, implement health policies, and regulate the healthcare sector to meet the specific needs of their population.

(viii) Infrastructure Development: Non-centralized states have the authority to plan, fund, and implement infrastructure projects within their boundaries. This includes the construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, power plants, water supply systems, and other essential infrastructure.

(ix) Cultural Preservation: Non-centralized states have the ability to promote and preserve their unique cultural heritage. They can develop cultural policies, support cultural institutions, and safeguard traditional practices, languages, and customs specific to their region.

(x) Local Economic Development: Non-centralized states can pursue economic development strategies tailored to their region’s needs and potentials. They can attract investments, promote local industries, and implement policies that stimulate economic growth and job creation within their jurisdiction.


(i) Competition for Power: The competition for power and leadership among the Hausa states was one of the major factors responsible for their disunity before1800. Each state was governed by an emir or sultan who wanted to maintain or extend their power, which sometimes led to conflicts with neighboring states. This competition for power and influence prevented the Hausa states from uniting under a common purpose

(ii) Religious Differences: Another factor that contributed to the disunity among the Hausa states was religious differences. While Islam was dominant in many of the states, some states still adhered to their traditional religions. This sometimes led to religious clashes and conflicts that further deepened the disunity among the states.

(iii) Ethnic Differences: The Hausa states were made up of different ethnic groups, each with their own culture, traditions, and language. This often led to misunderstandings and conflicts between the various ethnic groups and contributed to their disunity.

(iv) Economic Interests: Economic interests also played a role in the disunity among the Hausa states. Each state was interested in its own economic growth and development and often acted in ways that were detrimental to the economic interests of other states. This competition for economic resources and power created divisions among the states.

(v) Diplomatic Rivalries: Diplomatic rivalries and alliances between the different Hausa states also contributed to their disunity. Each state was interested in securing allies and forming alliances that would strengthen its own position, often at the expense of other states. These diplomatic rivalries further fueled conflicts and prevented the states from uniting under a common goal or purpose.

(i) Afonja
(ii) Alimi
(iii) Kosoko

(i) Political development: The wars helped shape the political landscape of Nigeria by leading to the emergence of powerful kingdoms and city-states such as Oyo, Ibadan and Ife.

(ii) Cultural preservation: The wars played a key role in preserving Yoruba culture, traditions and beliefs, which have been passed down from generation to generation.

(iii) Economic impact: The wars disrupted trade and commerce, resulting in the decline of some Yoruba towns and the rise of others.

(iv) Colonial influence: The wars paved the way for the eventual colonization of Nigeria by the British, as they took advantage of the political instability and fragmentation caused by the wars to establish their authority over the region.

(i) Oba’s Court: The Oba’s Court was the most important socio-political organization in Benin during the 19th century.It served as the seat of power and was responsible for governing the kingdom. The Oba was the head of the court and he held the most power in the kingdom. The Oba’s court was also responsible for preserving the kingdom’s culture and traditions

(ii) Eghaevbo N’ore: Eghaevbo N’ore was a council of elders that advised the Oba on matters of governance, including legal issues and the appointment of officials. The council was composed of highly revered and respected individuals who represented different lineages in the kingdom.

(iii) Ekine Society: The Ekine Society was a secret society that served as a social, religious, and political organization. Its members were men who had attained a certain level of success in society and were initiated into the society upon meeting certain criteria. The Ekine Society was known for its use of drums, dances, and other forms of cultural expression.

(iv) Iwebo: Iwebo was a society of women who played important roles in the governance of the kingdom. They performed various functions, including the collection of taxes, the maintenance of roads and other infrastructure, and the provision of social services. Iwebo also had a role in resolving disputes and promoting peace within the kingdom.

(v) Age Grade System: The Age Grade System was a socio-political organization that grouped individuals according to their age and provided a framework for social, economic, and political activities. Each age grade had specific roles and responsibilities, and individuals moved through the age grades as they matured. The age grade system served as a means of socializing young people into the norms and values of the kingdom and provided a platform for political participation.


(i) Advocacy against slavery: Christian missionaries actively spoke out against the institution of slavery, condemning its immorality and advocating for its abolition. They preached about the equality and dignity of all human beings, emphasizing the inherent worth of slaves.

(ii) Education and enlightenment: Missionaries established schools and educational institutions in Nigeria, providing slaves and freed individuals with opportunities for education. By imparting knowledge and critical thinking skills, they empowered individuals to question the legitimacy of slavery and understand their rights.

(iii) Conversion of slave owners: Through their religious teachings, missionaries sought to convert slave owners to Christianity, hoping to instill in them a sense of compassion, empathy, and respect for human life. This conversion often challenged the notion of slave ownership and promoted a more humane treatment of slaves.

(iv) Liberation of slaves: Missionaries actively participated in the liberation of slaves. They bought slaves from their owners, negotiated for their freedom, and provided shelter and support for freed individuals. In some cases, missionaries facilitated the establishment of self-sustaining communities for freed slaves.

(v) Promotion of indigenous leadership: Missionaries trained and educated indigenous leaders to take charge of their communities. By empowering local leaders, missionaries ensured the sustainability of their efforts against slavery and promoted self-governance among the people.

(vi) Documentation and reporting: Christian missionaries documented the horrors of the slave trade, including firsthand accounts of its brutality. They sent reports to their home countries, raising awareness and generating public support for the abolitionist movement.

(vii) Collaboration with abolitionist societies: Missionaries collaborated with abolitionist societies and organizations in Europe and the United States. They shared information, coordinated efforts, and leveraged international pressure to bring an end to the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

(viii) Cultural transformation: Through their teachings, missionaries fostered a cultural transformation that challenged the social acceptance of slavery. They emphasized the principles of equality, justice, and compassion, which gradually shifted societal attitudes and contributed to the eventual eradication of the slave trade.


(i) Preservation of Local Customs and Traditions: Indirect Rule allowed the British administrators to govern through existing indigenous institutions and rulers. This approach aimed to maintain local customs, traditions, and social structures, providing a sense of continuity for the Nigerian people.

(ii) Minimal Disruption of Local Governance: By employing traditional rulers and chiefs as intermediaries, the British authorities minimized disruptions to local governance structures. This approach helped to maintain stability and avoid significant upheavals that might have occurred with a more direct form of colonial rule.

(iii) Efficient Administrative System: The Indirect Rule system utilized existing native administrative structures, such as traditional councils and courts, to enforce British policies and laws. This approach was seen as efficient since it utilized local resources and knowledge, reducing the burden on the colonial administration.

(iv) Economic Development: The British authorities often relied on local elites to collect taxes and administer economic policies. This approach allowed the indigenous rulers and chiefs to retain some control over economic affairs and provided opportunities for them to participate in the colonial economy.

(v) Access to Education and Western Knowledge: Indirect Rule brought Western education to some parts of Nigeria through the establishment of schools by the colonial authorities. This provided some Nigerians with access to formal education, which could lead to improved opportunities in the colonial administration or other sectors.

(vi) Infrastructure Development: Under Indirect Rule, the British colonial administration invested in infrastructure projects like road construction, telecommunication networks, and health facilities in certain areas. This led to improved access to services and increased connectivity within the region.

(vii) Exposure to Modern Systems of Governance: The presence of British administrators and their interaction with traditional rulers exposed the Nigerians to modern systems of governance, legal frameworks, and bureaucratic structures. This exposure opened up avenues for some Nigerians to gain knowledge and experience that would later influence their involvement in post-colonial governance.

(viii) Recognition of Indigenous Authorities: Indirect Rule conferred authority and recognition on indigenous rulers and chiefs, which helped to maintain their prestige and status within their communities. This recognition provided some level of stability and continuity in local leadership, which was seen as advantageous by those who benefited from this arrangement.


(i) Economic Growth: Peaceful coexistence among the diverse ethnic groups in Nigeria has led to economic growth. The country has seen significant development in sectors such as agriculture, telecommunications, and infrastructure, leading to job creation and increased revenue generation.

(ii) Cultural Exchange: The diverse cultural groups in Nigeria have had the opportunity to learn from one another and appreciate each other’s culture through peaceful coexistence. This has enhanced cultural exchange and national unity amongst the various ethnic groups.

(iii) Tourism: Peaceful coexistence has also contributed positively to the tourism industry in Nigeria. The country’s natural resources like waterfalls, beaches, wildlife, and historical sites have attracted tourists from all over the world, contributing to Nigeria’s revenue.

(iv) Political Stability: Peaceful coexistence creates a conducive environment for political stability. The country has been able to conduct free and fair elections, which have led to the smooth transfer of power from one government to the other.

(v) Social Harmony: Peaceful coexistence has fostered social harmony, where individuals from different backgrounds can live and work together peacefully. This has resulted in increased social cohesion and reduced instances of discrimination, ethnic tension, and violence.

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